Relatively small, mostly 2-8 dm, glabrous or somewhat hirsute; lvs relatively few, weakly or scarcely punctate, the lowest ones oblanceolate, 7-30 נ0.7-2 cm, usually irregularly ciliate-margined toward the base; heads mostly 5-40, closely ascending in a ±spiciform infl, subsessile or on peduncles to 1(-3) cm; invol turbinate, 7-12 mm, its bracts appressed, broadly rounded, scarious-margined, ciliate, not strongly punctate, generally purplish above; fls mostly 8-15(-20), often ca 13; cor hairy toward the base within; pappus barbellate; 2n=20. Dry, rocky woods; mts. of Va., W.Va. and N.C. to n. Ga. and ne. Ala. Aug., Sept.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.