Stout perennial 3-9 dm with short, knotty rhizomes; lvs 4-10 mm wide, usually shorter than the stem; at least the lowest bract surpassing the infl; rays several, usually well developed, to 12 cm; spikes unbranched, short-cylindric, rounded at both ends, 1-3 cm; spikelets 50-100+, horizontally radiating except the uppermost and lowermost, subulate, 3-8-fld, acuminate, deciduous at maturity; scales oblong, 4-5 mm, appressed, finely multiribbed, obtuse, the tip of one reaching well beyond the base of the next one on the same side; anthers 0.7-1 mm; achenes trigonously obovoid-oblong, 2-2.6 mm, a third as thick, held between the hyaline wings of the rachilla. Woods and fields, N.J. to W.Va., O., and Mo., s. to Ga. and Ark.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.