Leaves usually 3, sometimes 4. Mostly in moist, rich beech and sugar maple woods and rarely in wet places in woods. It is rather local in a few of the northern counties and reappears in slightly acid soil in Decatur and Jennings Counties. The plant is rather inconspicuous and may be more common than the reports indicate.
Androdioecious; root globose; stem 1-2 dm; lfls 3-5, sessile or nearly so, lanceolate to elliptic or oblanceolate, 4-8 cm, obtuse or subacute, finely serrate; peduncle 2-8 cm; fls white or tinged with pink, often unisexual; styles usually 3; fr yellow, 5 mm thick; 2n=24. Rich woods and bottomlands; Que. and N.S. to Minn., s. to Pa., Ind., and Io., and along the mts. to Ga. Apr., May.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.