Much like no. 2 [Cacalia muehlenbergii (Sch. Bip.) Fernald], and hybridizing with it; stem glaucous, terete or slightly striate; lvs pale and glaucous beneath, averaging smaller, proportionately longer, and more pointed (the lower triangular-ovate), with fewer and larger teeth, or merely shallowly lobed, the sinuses smooth; 2n=50-56. Woods and moist or rather dry open places; N.J. and Pa. to s. Minn., s. to Ga., w. Fla., and Okla. (Mesadenia a.)
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.