Plants perennial; cespitose, with innovations and hardened bases, without
rhizomes, not glandular. Culms (30)45-100 cm, erect, glabrous below the
nodes. Sheaths rarely glabrous, apices and distal margins usually hairy,
sometimes also densely hairy basally, dorsally, and on the collars, hairs to 6
mm, papillose-based; ligules 0.2-0.4 mm; blades 25-60 cm long, 3-8(11)
mm wide, flat to loosely involute, usually glabrous, adaxial surfaces sometimes
hairy basally. Panicles 25-85 cm long, 15-40 cm wide, broadly ovate, open;
primary branches mostly 4-35(45) cm, diverging 20-90° from the rachises,
capillary; pulvini glabrous or hairy; pedicels 2-28 mm, divergent.
Spikelets 2-4(5) mm long, 1-1.7 mm wide, lanceolate, greenish with purplish
tinges, with 2-6 florets; disarticulation acropetal, paleas persistent.
Glumes lanceolate, hyaline to membranous; lower glumes 1.1-2 mm;
upper glumes 1.5-2.8 mm, apices acuminate to acute; lemmas 1.6-2.4
mm, ovate, membranous, hyaline near the margins, lateral veins inconspicuous,
apices acute; paleas 1.2-2.2 mm, hyaline, bases not projecting beyond the
lemmas, apices acute to obtuse; anthers 3, 0.3-0.8 mm, purplish. Caryopses
0.8-1 mm, rectangular-prismatic, somewhat laterally compressed, with or without
a well-developed adaxial groove, striate, opaque, reddish-brown. 2n
grows in sandy clay loams on the coastal plain and along
roadsides, at 0-150 m, usually in association with Pinus palustris
Quercus. Its range extends from the southeastern United States through
eastern Mexico to Guatemala and Belize.
Stout, erect, tufted perennial 4-10 dm; sheaths longer than the internodes, ciliate-margined and sometimes villous on the back; blades 4-10 mm wide, elongate and tapering to a fine point, involute when dry; infl diffuse, half the length of the entire shoot, its scabrous branches pilose in the axils; pedicels spreading, 8-18 mm; spikelets 2-4 mm, 2-6-fld; first glume 1.4-2 mm, the second 1.6-2.2 mm; lemmas 1.7-2.4 mm, rounded on the back, the lateral veins inconspicuous or nearly obsolete, at maturity falling individually from the intact rachilla, on which the paleas may persist; grain 0.7-1 mm, barrel-shaped; 2n=100. Dry sandy soil near the coast; Md. and Va. to Fla. and Tex., n. in the interior to Mo., and rarely intr. northward, as in Mass. and Me.
Gleason, Henry A. & Cronquist, Arthur J. 1991. Manual of vascular plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. lxxv + 910 pp.